Today, just though of putting together, what it takes to build and manage Virtual Data-center?
One thing I want to stress is that, you still need to manage Classic Data-center, however there are several things you need to understand, build and manage on top of Classic DC to make it Virtual DC.
Following diagram gives overall picture, as what you have to manage in IT Operations in case of Classic DC and Virtual DC, apart from the various apps and websites.
Writing a blog post after a long time.. This time on Cloud Computing fundamentals..
Why Cloud Computing?
The IT challenges listed below have made organizations think about the Cloud Computing model to provide better service to their customers
Globalization: IT must meet the business needs to serve customers world-wide, round the clock - 24x7x365.
Aging Data Centers: Migration, upgrading technology to replace old technology.
Storage Growth: Explosion of storage consumption and usage.
Application Explosion: New applications need to be deployed and their usage may scale rapidly, The current data center infrastructures are not planned to accommodate for such rapid growth.
Cost of ownership: Due to increasing business demand, the cost of buying new equipment's, power, cooling, support, licenses, etc., increases the Total Cost of Ownership(TCO.)
Acquisitions: When companies are acquired, the IT infrastructures of the acquired company and the acquiring company are often different. These differences in the IT infrastructures demand significant effort to make them inter-operable.
What is Cloud computing? (Definition): According to NIST, Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.
What are the Essential Characteristics?
Cloud computing should have all of the following characteristics
Broad Network Access
What are the building blocks of Cloud Computing?
What are the Service Models in Cloud Computing?
Infrastructure as a service
Platform as a service
Software as a service
What are the Deployment Models in Cloud Computing?
Public Cloud: Infrastructure Shared across multiple end users which may include companies
Private Cloud : Exclusive for one company, it can be on-premise / exclusively hosted at cloud service provider
Hybrid Cloud : Combination of Public and Private cloud
Community Cloud : Set of similar types of customer, comes together and share infrastructure, example multiple universities contribute and use one cloud infrastructure.
What is the difference between public and private cloud?
Developer > DBA > Apps 11i DBA > R12 DBA and now you want to become Fusion Apps DBA, then you are on correct page.
Here I shall try to provide some info you should be knowing before you start hands on.
OTN has all the Fusion Apps doc's . Latest version as of today (while writing this blog) is11g Release 1, Update 3 (11.1.4)
It involves lot of Oracle technology such as Database , Identity Management , WebLogic , SOA Suite , Oracle Data Integrator , ApplCore (ATG) , WebCenter , Secure Enterprise Search , Enterprise Content Management , Oracle Forms Recognition & Business Intelligence
Currently supported platforms are Linux x86-64 (64 bit), Oracle Solaris SPARC (64 bit), Oracle Solaris x86-64 (64 bit), IBM AIX on POWER Systems (64 bit), Microsoft Windows x64 (64 bit)\
2 types of Installation types, one bare metal install, other is OVM templates
I think cloning and platform migration is currently not available
Note: Please do not use
special characters like @ / # / $ / % etc in any database passwords.
Changing password of SYS, SYSTEM, DBSNMP
database server and issue following commands
Sqlplus “/as sysdba”
Alter user system identified by
Alter user sys identified by
Alter user dbsnmp identified by
passwords are changed, these needs to be changed in EM (if its installed and
used). For this, login to EM using sysman account. Then navigate to Preferences
> Proffered Credentials > Database Instances > click on set
credentials, then against appropriate Database change the passwords. Also
change password of dbsnmp user in DB config form.
the steps to perform the password change of DB users
lines regarding the Schema password.
1)APPS password should be different than
other Applications base schemas like AP, GL, AR etc.
2)User called ROAPPS (Read Only APPS)
should be created who need read access to APPS schema.
3)Regarding base schemas (like AP, AR,
GL) they can have same pattern like AP/AP2008, GL/GL2008 or they can have
different passwords. This depends on, if some schema passwords are shared to
4)Password change procedure should be
tested in TEST instance first, documented and then only should be executed on
5)Please don’t keep same password in
TEST and PROD.
6)Use relevant tools to change password,
like FNDCPASS for APPS, GL etc.
Also its is
recommended to implement Oracle Applications Auditing feature, to track the
changes in important tables.
OS (Operating system passwords)
the steps to be followed for changing OS Passwords
For those who
need access to check log fines and stuff like that user called “viewer”
in-group “viewer” and password as “viewer” should be created and given to the
required user. Also we need to change the vncserver password if it’s started
from root or normal unix user. And lastly, its recommended to have a separate
username for each DBA, so that first he has to login to server using his own
username and then su - <application / database owner user>. In this case
the direct access to root, application / database user should be restricted.
to change Applications User Passwords (Like SYSADMIN)
steps to change Applications passwords of SYSADMIN user.
password should not be shared with any other user. This password should be with
quite a few profile options available in Applications, which can be used to
tighten the front-end security, such as,
a.Signon Password Hard to Guess =>
password contains at least one letter and at least one number.
password does not contain the username.
password does not contain repeating characters.
b.Signon Password Length => 8 to 10
Password Length sets the minimum length of an Applications signon password. If
no value is entered the minimum length defaults to 5.
c.Signon Password No Reuse => 10000
This profile option specifies the number of days
that a user must wait before being allowed to reuse a password.
d.Signon Password Failure Limit =>3
maximum number of login attempts before the user's account is disabled.
e.ICX:Session Timeout => 20 Min / 60
prevent the misuse of unlocked desktop.
profile option determines the length of time (in minutes) of inactivity in a
user's session before the session is disabled. If the user does not perform any
operation in Oracle Applications for longer than this value, the session is
disabled. The user is provided the opportunity to re-authenticate and re-enable
a timed-out session. If re-authentication is successful, the session is re-enabled
and no work is lost. Otherwise, Oracle Applications exit without saving
f.Sign-On:Notification => Yes
a message at login that indicates:
any concurrent requests failed since your last session,
many times someone tried to log on to Oracle Applications with your username
but an incorrect password, and
the default printer identified in your user profile is unregistered or not
this, Customer should monitor the list of users who has powerful responsibilities
like GL super user, System Administrator etc and reduce such users as far as
inactive users should be locked from in the system if they don’t login in last
guidelines for DBA’s:
Do Not Allow Shared Accounts
Do Not Use Generic Passwords
Treat All Non-Production
Instances With The Security As Production
Restrict Network Access - Set
Password on Database Listener
Minimize Passwords Contained In
Secure Default Database Accounts
Apply all prior, and plan in
advance to apply any new Oracle Security Patches
Limit Access To Forms Allowing
Stop isqlplus process on server
side (if started)
Restrict Network Access - Limit
Direct Access To The Database